Not all electric cars have the same style of battery. Typically, electric cars store power in rechargeable batteries, supplied to electric propelled motors. Unlike internal combustion engine cars, electric vehicles are quieter when being used. They also produce fewer amounts of emissions with no exhaust emissions, preserving the environment.
While it’s a rare occurrence, electric car batteries overheating still remains a challenge to their overall efficiency. Heat can cause some of the liquid in the battery to evaporate and ignite a chemical reaction, damaging the car’s internal structure. This is the reason why electric vehicles battery cooling systems are so essential.
Electric Vehicles with Liquid Cooled Batteries
To prevent battery thermal runway, electric vehicles require cooling systems. Examples of electric cars with liquid-cooled batteries include the following:
Tesla Model 3
Tesla Model 3 has a dual all-wheel drive motor and a high acceleration velocity as it can move from 0-60 mph in 3 seconds. It comes with an electrically driven water pump (auxiliary water pump) to help with pumping the coolant through the battery cooling circuit.
It’s designed so that each battery cell has full contact with the coolant, resulting in a more even and efficient temperature regulation process.
With a combination of steel and aluminum on its body, it has a maximum strength that can resist damage from structures up to four times its body size, guaranteeing safety to drivers and passengers. It also includes cameras on both sides (front, rear, and sideways) to provide all-around visibility. The sensors assist in parking and are used to detect obstacles and evade a possible collision.
BMW i3 is an electric hatchback packed with Li-ion batteries that can be fully charged in less than six hours and an optional petrol engine for range extension. Its cooling system is a direct refrigerant with no extra installation.
It uses the existing A/C fluid to cool the batteries. Because of this, it uses much less coolant compared to other electric vehicles and doesn’t need an additional pumping mechanism.
Chevrolet Bolt is a five-seat hatchback with an electric-driven front motor manufactured by Chevrolet in partnership with LG Corporation. It comes with three coolant reservoirs and a bolt pack that uses LG Chem pouch cells. Active thermal management is achieved via liquid cooling along with a base plate below the cells.
Ford Focus Electric
Ford Focus is a five-door electric hatchback manufactured by Ford in 2011. It applies active liquid thermal management whereby the system chills the coolant before supplying it to the battery cells. On some occasions, the system warms the coolant before providing it to the battery cells. This way, the temperatures get regulated.
This is an electric luxury car manufactured by Karma automotive, first released in September 2016. It has a radiator, a cooling fan, and a cooling fan relay that help prevent the fluid from getting hot. The thermostat makes sure that the liquid doesn’t get too cold.
Other electric vehicles with liquid-cooled batteries include Chevy spark, Tesla Model S, Tesla X, Tesla Y, Toyota Rav4, Volkswagen e-Golf, Kia Soul, BMW i8, Toyota Prius, Audi A3 E-Tron.
Types of Liquid Cooling Systems
Liquid cooling has been divided into two systems: Direct Cooling Systems and Indirect Cooling Systems. Let’s take a closer look at both of them.
Direct Cooling System
In a direct cooling system, the car battery is directly exposed to the coolant, which should have a very low or no conductivity rate. Conductivity is the ability of the coolant to pass electrons. If the fluid has high conductivity, it might lead to an explosion or failure to work correctly. Drivers should use non-salt based fluid or use deionized water to keep this conductivity low.
Indirect Liquid Cooling System
In an indirect liquid cooling system, it supplies coolant throughout a series of metal pipes to absorb the heat, keeping it away from the battery. The liquid’s ability to avoid corrosion is what separates a reasonable engine from a great one.
Decay happens because of the impurities found in the coolant that have a positive charge. To prevent this, only negatively charged electrons with high conductivity are required, i.e., glycol and polyglycol commodities are preferred.
Using electric powered cars is the new way to go. These cars are made to be mindful of the environment while applying the latest technology. Apart from using a renewable energy source, they move in silence, avoiding noise pollution. Picking an electric vehicle with a liquid-cooled battery can help make your ride even smoother.